A war is a hostile period of time causing deaths from all the sides. A conflict between two or more societies, states, governments and paramilitary groups such mercenaries, militias etc. It is characterized by extreme aggression resulting in extreme violence and destruction. Warfare is the activities and characteristics of types of wars. War studies Scholars have referred war from being ancestral aspect of human nature to socio-cultural, ecological and economic circumstances. The Psychologist and linguist Steven Pinker had arguments that our warring nature is ancestral because of due to benefits of victory. With a war happening around a nation or whatever organization is involved may win the conflict and satisfy with treaties over areas of losing side or maybe after looting it but we the people of this world we lose. We lose our loved ones, our happiness, the peace we had in ourselves, we lose the young and the strong, old and the bold who were there to fight. We think yes, the war is over and everything going to be normal but ask the soldiers who served is it really over? We call dead as the heroes of this world but can they listen? We run from silence and all they wish is to hear the silence before they die. A war is nothing except the times of deaths and sorrows. Ask the fathers who buried their sons is the war really over? Ask the soldiers who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, is it really over? What is war? A conflict between two states or organizations. Well, give a look at the statement of the Prussian military analyst Carl Von Clausewitz in his book ‘On War’, he calls it “continuation of politics carried out by other means”. According to Retired Professor of Political Science Conway W. Henderson “One source claimed that 14,500 wars have taken place between 3500 BC to 20th century, 3.5 billion lives are lost and there was only 300 years of peace”.
HISTORY OF WARS.
The earliest evidence found of any kind of warfare is more Mesolithic cemetery in JEBEL SAHABA, Sudan which is known to be approx. 14,000 years old committed by Natufians against the population of Qadan culture. The skeletons found there were violently damaged and half of them are found with arrowheads embedded in their skeletons. Likely at the site of Nataruk, Kenya number of skeletons with many traumatic injuries have been found that were from 10,000 years ago. Between those skeletons some are of men some of women and a pregnant woman and some of children which depicts wraith and mercilessness of pre-historic humans. But it was the time humans killed other humans for resources, minerals and women and children. As you can read about the discovery of massacre of Talhiem death pit in Germany that was dated in Neolithic period approx. 5500 years ago. In the Chalcolithic period, excavations at Mersin, Anatolia shows the presence of Earliest military headquarters and fortifications. Earliest urban warfare presence found at site of Hamoukar back in 3500 BC. The oldest large scale battlefield was the Tollenese Valley Battlefield fought in 13th century. Mycenaean Greeks were first to invest in military infrastructure. Early Iron age events like Greek Colonization, Dorian Invasion tells us about wars in that period and Germanic Warrior Societies of Migration period involved in Endemic warfare. Era of modern warfare started with ‘ gun powder revolution’ marked by the Crimean War and then by American civil war, heading onto the use of machine guns, aircrafts, submarines, tanks and radios in the Great war or The World War I. This gave birth to many types of warfare including Total war, a warfare without laws of war, a war won by any means, Nuclear warfare, a war with nuclear bombs and atomic bombs, the weapons of destruction of masses, Insurgencies, the rebellions against authorities, Cold warfare, fighting in indirect way through politics, espionage, economic wars, covert operations etc., Cyber warfare used for damaging information systems of one’s nation, Chemical warfare, where the chemicals like poison gas are used, Biological warfare, where the germs and bacteria are used to infect and weaken the enemy. But as we have read the history these wars only occur when a psychologically disturbed leader with lack and disregard for human life importance are placed into power, the leaders with hunger of political power such as Napoleon and Hitler.